## Introduction to Java Programming

Our core Java programming tutorial is designed for students and working professionals to understand. Java is a computer programming language that is object-oriented, class-based, concurrent, stable, and general-purpose. It’s a reliable technology that’s commonly used. JAVA was developed by Sun Microsystems Inc, which was later acquired by Oracle Corporation. James Gosling and Patrick Naughton collaborated…

## What is the formal definition of epsilon or ε-closure?

ε stand to epsilon or null value in NFA. ε-closures of state qi is the set of states including qi where qi can reach by any number of ε – moves of the given NFA. ε-closures of qi :- – ε-closures of a state qi, includes qi. – Set of states reachable from qi on…

## Automata Conversion from NFA to DFA

The NFA to DFA conversion is based on subset construction. If a non-deterministic finite state machine consists of three states.                 Q = (q0, q1, q2,) The machine could form a power set on Q, which in given by 2Q . The procedure for finding whether a given string is accepted by the NFA, involves: Tracing…

A string 010 (starting with 01 and ending with 10 ) can be accepted through the path For any other string, the portion between starting 01 and ending 10 can absorbed by the state q2. Designing NFA step by step: Step – 1: Make initial state “q0”. Step -2: As  “q0” is initial state transition from…

## Differentiate between NFA and DFA

Difference between DFA and NFA SR.NO. DFA NFA 1 DFA stands for Deterministic Finite Automata NFA stands for Non-Deterministic Automata 2 More, if NFA contains Q states then the corresponding DFA will have <= 2Q states. NFA has fever number of states 3 DFA cannot use Empty String transition NFA can use Empty String transition….

## Design NFA that accepts string ending with aab

The Language accepted by the above NFA consist of string ending in aab. A string length n, ending in aab can be accepted by the above NFA if: The machine remains in q0 for the first n-3 inputs. On the last three inputs aab, the machine makes the transition as shown below: To reach the…

## Design NFA to accept string containing the substring 0101

For reaching the final state q4 , from the start state q0 , a sub-string 0101 is required. Any string, containing a sub string 0101 will be accepted by the above NFA. The machine can remain in q0, for the portion of string before 0101. The machine can remain in q4 for the portion of…

## Non-Deterministic finite Automata

Non-Determinstic finite automata can reside in multiple states at the same time. The concept of non -deterministic finite automata is being explained with the help of the transition diagram. IF the automata is in the state q0 and the next input symbol is 1, then the next state will be either : 1) q0 2)…

## Design DFA which accept a binary number divisible by 3

Design of DFA divisibility – by – 3 tester for a binary number. A binary number is divisible by 3, if the remainder when divided by 3 will work out to be zero. We must device a mechanism for finding the final remainder. – We can calculate the running remainder based on previous remainder and…

## Design DFA that contain word ‘CAT’ using word ‘CHARIOT’

We are going to design a DFA that reads strings made up of letters in the word ‘CHARIOT’ and recognizes these strings that contain the word ‘CAT’ as a substring. Solution : Meaning of various states: q0 : Starting state. q1 : First character C of ‘CAT’ is the preceding character. q2 : First two…